carnivore mari  
° Management Plan
   - Realising the GIS database with persons and institutions responsible for land management
   - The Landowners Directory Committee component
° Electric fences
   - Composition of electric fences
   - Functioning principle for the electrical protection system
   - Assembling the electric fences
   - Maintaining the electric fence
   - Practical advices
   - Electric fence benefits
   - Implementing the sheepfolds electrical protection system
°Intervention Unit
   - Rehabilitation and Monitoring Centre
   - Animal Rescue Mobile Unit
° Monitoring of large carnivores & prey
   - Assessing large carnivores relative abundance using hair snares
   - Assessing large carnivores relative abundance using remote cameras
   - Assessing the large carnivores populations based on animals tracks, signs and scats
   - GPS Localization (Global Positioning System)
   - VHF Localization (Very High Frequency)
° Natura 2000

Practical advices

   The earthen system must be tested
   If the fence doesn’t produce the expected shock, it is most likely that this is the fault of the earthen system. Always check the earthen first. This presents half of the effectiveness of an electrical protection system.
   The main causes of an inefficient earthen are:
-insuficient earthen sticks;
-badly connected wires or different types connected together;
-poor connexions with earthen sticks;
-earthen sticks one near each other;
-insufficiently long earthen sticks.

   The depth is important for assuring that the buried part is always found in a moist soil. The earthen system must be perfect. Without a earthen system, the pulsation current won’t be able to complete its circuit, being completely inefficient, and therefore there will be no shocks in the electric fence.

   The earthen system of the generator is similar to that of a radio antenna; the bigger it is, the better the reception. Same for the electric fence: a larger power of the generator requires a large earthen system to collect a large number of electrons from the soil. In soils with severe droughts and a low concentration of minerals, there should be used a saline solution. Salt is a good conductor for electricity and it also attracts and maintains humidity.

   Some important aspects for building an electric fence

   Wires joining
   Incorrectly joint wires can be a major cause for energy loss. When joining wires in the middle of the fence, use junction clips. They are cheap and improve a lot the functioning of the fence. Never join two heads by a simple node. You will lose a lot of energy (the resistance can be equal to a kilometre of wire).

   Marking fences with high voltages
    A warning is necessary so that people won’t touch them
    Use a wire thickness of at leas 2 mm. The larger the diameter is, the better the conductivity and therefore the stronger the system is.

   Problems that can appear when using an electric fence
-inadequate earthen system;
-bad or corrosive connexions for earthen or wires;
-large lengths of thin wires;
-rusty wires;
-excessive vegetation alongside the fence;
-broken wires.

   Common mistakes
If there is no current or small current in the wires check if:
-is the generator on?
-is the earthen wire connected with the generator and earthen sticks?
-is there a fissure in the earth?
-are there broken or damaged isolations?

   First check the generator voltage. To verify if the generator is damaged, unplug every wire and check it without any charge. If you haven’t discovered any malfunctioning in the generator or earthen, check the wires. Using a digital tester you will find the malfunctioning easier. The reading will continue to decrease until you pass the malfunction. After it, the reading should remain relatively constant.
© 2010 APM Vrancea