carnivore mari  
° Management Plan
   - Realising the GIS database with persons and institutions responsible for land management
   - The Landowners Directory Committee component
° Electric fences
   - Composition of electric fences
   - Functioning principle for the electrical protection system
   - Assembling the electric fences
   - Maintaining the electric fence
   - Practical advices
   - Electric fence benefits
   - Implementing the sheepfolds electrical protection system
°Intervention Unit
   - Rehabilitation and Monitoring Centre
   - Animal Rescue Mobile Unit
° Monitoring of large carnivores & prey
   - Assessing large carnivores relative abundance using hair snares
   - Assessing large carnivores relative abundance using remote cameras
   - Assessing the large carnivores populations based on animals tracks, signs and scats
   - GPS Localization (Global Positioning System)
   - VHF Localization (Very High Frequency)
° Natura 2000

Assembling the electric fences

   Wires are placed at a distance of 20-30 cm from each other, the inferior ones closer (15 cm), the wire distance varying according to the field and predator species:
   -for wolves, wires will be concentrated near the soil, so they will be enable of digging under the bottom wire;
   -for bears, wires will be displayed uniform;
   -when the fence is situated on a slope, upstream the wires are placed at a higher level, avoiding the possibility that the animal jumps over them

   Piers are fixed at intervals of 5-10 meters, according to the topography; where the surface is irregular the distance will be smaller for better following the soil’s shape. It must always be verified if the wires have the same spaces between them on the piers. It has been observed that spaces differences have been immediately observed by watch dogs, which used them for entering. The wires must not touch the soil or the grass in order to avoid current interruption. There can be used coils with wires of 400 or 200 meters.

   The fences must be equipped with a minimum of 3 wires, with alternating charges (+, -, +). If the bottom wire is at 20 cm from soil it must be charged positive in order to stop attempts of digging or crawling.

   The fence’s height is the only limit for jumping animal. By adding an additional fence in front of the first one and enlarging the entire system, the jumper will hesitate at crossing over it. The fence will not stop a large animal, running towards him without seeing it. Furthermore, most contacts with the electric fence happen at night. That is why the fence must be visible, and a white wire can be mounted in its superior part.

   A power of at least 4500 Volts should be maintained alongside the fence, at every hour, with one pulse by second.
© 2010 APM Vrancea